Mapping Memory Related CWEs to BF Classes
Irena Bojanova, PI and Lead, Bugs Framework (BF)

BF Memory Bugs taxonomy can be used by bug reporting tools, as it is a structured extension over memory-related CWEs. All Memory Error consequences from the BF classes relate to one or more CWEs.

The BF classes ensure precise causal descriptions, as a weakness is described via one cause, one operation, and one consequence, while the CWEs only enumerate weaknesses. The CWEs exhaustive list approach is prone to gaps in coverage: some weakness types may be missing. The CWEs also have overlaps in coverage, including via over detailing (e.g., CWE-118 children’s buffer overflow variations). While by their nature, the BF classes are complete and orthogonal, assuring no gaps and no overlaps in coverage. We map a CWE to a BF class by an operation and/or a consequence from the lists defining the BF class. Through these relationships, the BF classes can be viewed as structured extensions to the memory-related CWEs.

The BF Memory Bugs classes relate to particular CWEs by BF MAD, MMN, and MUS operations and/or consequences.

The generated digraphs (see Figure 1 and Figure 2) of all memory-related show this correspondence both by operation (Figure 1) and by consequence (Figure 2). An edge starts at a child CWE and ends at a parent CWE. Bug reporting tools would use base or variant CWEs, but they may also use higher abstraction level CWEs if there is not enough specific information about the bug or if there is no related base CWE. The outline style of a CWE node indicates the CWE level of abstraction: pillar, class, base, or variant.

The digraphs demonstrate that the MAD, MMN, and MUS classes cover all memory-related CWEs, and potentially beyond, while providing a better structured way for describing these kinds of bugs/weaknesses.

Figure 1. A digraph of memory related CWEs mapped by MAD, MMN, and MUS operations.

The digraph helps identify four clusters of memory-related CWEs. Most of these memory-related CWEs can be tracked as children of the pillar CWE-664; exceptions are CWE-476 (NULL Pointer Dereference), CWE-xxx, CWE-596 (Explicit Call to Finalize()), CWE-587(Assignment of a Fixed Address to a Pointer), and CWE-588(Attempt to Access Child of a Non-structure Pointer). The largest cluster comprises the children of CWE-119, which are weaknesses associated with reading and writing outside the boundaries of an object. The second-largest cluster comprises the children of CWE- 400 and CWE-665, which are mainly weaknesses related to memory allocation and object initialization. The children of CWE-404, which are weaknesses associated with improper memory release, form the third cluster. The smallest cluster comprises CWE-704, CWE-588 and CWE-843, which are memory use or deallocation weaknesses due to the mismatch between pointer and object types.

The color of a CWE node (Figure 1) indicates the BF memory class associated with that CWE. A BF class is associated with a CWE if the BF class has a Memory Error consequence covered by the CWE description. CWEs related to the BF MUS memory errors are presented in blue, CWEs related only to MAL are presented in pink, and CWEs related to both MAL and MDL are presented in green.

Figure 1. A digraph of memory related CWEs mapped by MAD, MMN, and MUS operations.

Most of the BF MUS Memory Error consequences relate to CWEs from the first cluster. The Memory Error consequences from BF MAL and BF MDL relate to CWEs across clusters. Note that the BF MAD class has no Memory Error consequences, so it does not directly relate to any CWE.

The BF Memory Bugs model reflects the lifecycle of an object. The pillar CWE-664 also reflects the “lifetime of creation, use, and release” of a resource. However, it is quite broad; it is the parent of many CWEs that are not strictly memory-related. We use asterisks (*) to denote CWEs that are about any resource. CWE-704 is not a memory-related CWE, but is visualized on the digraph to show all the child-parent relationships.

The clusters of memory CWEs do not strictly correspond to the phases of address formation, allocation, use, and deallocation. CWEs related to a phase appear in more than one cluster. In addition, CWE-118 and CWE-119 are strictly about memory but cover more than one phase.

Viewed as a structured extension, the BF Memory Bugs classes relate to CWEs through particular Memory Error consequences. For BF MAL: Memory Overflow – relates to CWEs: 400*, 770*, and 789; Memory Leak – to CWEs: 401, 404*, and 771*; Double Free – to CWE-415; Object Corruption – to CWEs: 404*, 590, 761, 762, and 763.

For BF MUS: Uninitialized Object – relates to CWEs: 457, 456, CWE-665*, 908*, and 909*; Not Cleared Object – to CWEs: 226*, 244, and 459*; NULL Pointer Dereference – to CWE-476; Untrusted Pointer Dereference – to CWEs: 119 and 822; Type Confusion – to CWEs: 588 and 843*; Use After Free – to CWEs: 119,416, and 825; Buffer Overflow – to CWEs: 118, 119, 120, 121, 122, 123, 125, 126, 466, 805, 806, 787, and 788; Buffer Underflow – to CWEs: 118, 119, 122, 123, 124, 125, 127, 466, 786, 787, 805, and 806; Unitialized Pointer Dereference – to CWEs: 119 and 824. There are no related CWEs to BF MUS Object Corruption.

For BF MDL: Memory Leak – relates to CWEs: 401, 404*, and 771*; Double free – to CWE-415; Object Corruption – to CWEs: 404*, 761, 762, and 763.